Friday, April 25, 2014

Copyright, Intellectual Property, and MOOCs

Faculty must defend their rights to their intellectual property, which are increasingly under threat, according to a draft report released by the American Association of University Professors.
The report, called “Defending the Freedom to Innovate: Faculty Intellectual Property Rights after Stanford v. Roche,” argues that university attempts to assert ownership over faculty intellectual property have accelerated since – and in response to – that 2011 U.S. Supreme Court decision.
The AAUP has long been concerned with faculty members' right to own patents for whatever they have invented. Colleges previously often sought to assert control over patents but generally left faculty members' ownership of their courses and other writings alone.
With the emergence of MOOCs, however, colleges have begun asserting ownership of the courses their faculty members develop, raising the question of what is keeping such institutions from claiming ownership of other scholarly products covered by copyright, such as books.
Now, as online courses soar in popularity, a battle is beginning over who should own them. Though little noticed, it’s a fight that could change longstanding traditions about faculty control of classes they create, and influence the future and success of online higher education.
Universities hope to make money off these courses, which can enroll thousands of paying students instead of the few hundred who can fit inside the largest brick-and-mortar lecture halls. But many faculty fear that their work may be altered for the worse, or that universities will employ other, less-qualified people to teach them.
The Bundle of Rights: What exactly does a copyright holder "own"?
1. Copyright law gives creators the exclusive right and authority to a "bundle of rights." Thus the author owns not only the specific work, but the right to control its use. See 17 U.S.C. §106.
2. This bundle of rights includes the right of:
a) Reproduction (the right to control all forms of copying of the work);
b) Translation, abridgment, revision (the right to control derivative works);
c) Public distribution; and
d) Public performance and display.
3. Therefore ownership includes not only immediate but also future rights. It includes control over future revisions of syllabi, online courses, textbooks, etc., and rights and uses at one's home institution versus those faculty take with them when they leave.
The AAUP IP report web site presents cases where universities have just imposed new and serious financial and career penalties on faculty who want to preserve their IP rights--forced withdrawals of grant applications, denial of salary increases. All this follows upon new U demands for faculty to sign away their patent rights for life. 
Fast-growing third-party providers such as the Harvard-MIT collaboration edX, which collects and distributes courses from at least 30 universities around the world, leave the question to be resolved by member institutions.
“We don’t own it. The university does,” said Tena Herlihy, general counsel for edX. “The universities create the course and the content.”
No, say angry faculty; universities don’t create anything. They do.
“We are issuing this report in the midst of these fundamental changes in the character of faculty rights and academic freedom,” AAUP says. “Our purpose is to put the dialog on intellectual property on a new foundation, one that leads to a principle-based restoration of faculty leadership in setting policy in this increasingly important area of university activity.”
Historically, professors do share intellectual property on inventions and products created with university support, but books tend to be controlled entirely by the faculty authors, even if they, too, benefited from the college resources. Property models for online content are still emerging.
But many faculty are happy to give up ownership for the sake of being able to reach more students, as they can do online. And universities argue that they are investing considerable resources in the development of online courses and have a right to own them. Also, most universities pay faculty extra to develop online courses.
Tracy Mitrano, director of IT policy and the Institute for Computer Policy and Law at Cornell University, said it’s a good idea – and essential – that such negotiations regarding online course enterprises happen before faculty work begins. But because each course is different, she said, it’s important that blanket policies are flexible, and can be adapted to each situation.
For example, she said, the average cost of a successful massive open online course is $100,000, and likely involves IT staff and other support for the professor creating the course. For that reason, shared ownership may be something the institution and the faculty member will want to consider, whether at the “default” ratio of 50-50, or something else.
The report also attracted some veiled criticism from intellectual property and legal experts, for possibly exaggerating the extent to which faculty intellectual property rights are under threat.
Ada Meloy, general counsel for the American Council on Education, said she saw no evidence of an escalation in university claims to ownership over faculty intellectual property, and that what discussions have emerged following Stanford v. Roche are necessary.
The growing enthusiasm and application of online digital media for delivering higher education have raised serious questions of ownership and conflicts over control. These questions have brought copyright law to the fore and cannot be ignored. Thechnology has provided the means through distance courses to expand access to learning. The commercialization of online courses also has the potential to cange faculty roles and possibly inhibit scholarly inquiry and academic freedom. It is difficult to prognosticate how these problems will be solved, but it does seem apparent that to avoid legal entanglements, institutions of higher education must be agressive in devising comprehensive policy that coordinates expectations, serves the interests of education and protects those involved in the development, design, and distribution of online courses. 

Thursday, April 3, 2014

List of April 2014 MOOCs

Here is the list of free online courses that start in April 2014 on Coursera, EdX, Udacity, MongoDBCanvas Network, NovoED, FutureLearn, iversity by categories from US and international institutions (Total 116).

Art, Design, Music
Developing Your Musicianship2014-04-01EnglishCoursera
Creativity: Music to My Ears2014-04-02EnglishNovoED
Design Thinking2014-04-14Englishiversity
Design: Creation of Artifacts in Society2014-04-21EnglishCoursera
Marriage and the Movies: A History2014-04-21EnglishCoursera
Introduction to Improvisation2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
Introduction to Music Production2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
Introduction to Guitar2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Nubia2014-04-30EnglishCoursera
Biology and Life Sciences
DNA - From Structure to Therapy2014-04-25Englishiversity
Epigenetic Control of Gene Expression2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
Understanding the Brain: The Neurobiology of Everyday Life2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
Business and Management
大数据与信息传播 Big Data and Information Dissemination2014-04-01ChineseCoursera
Evaluación de Decisiones Estratégicas2014-04-01SpanishNovoED
JPAL101x: Evaluating Social Programs2014-04-01EnglishEdX
GWPx: Giving With Purpose: How to get the most out of your charitable giving2014-04-02EnglishEdX
New Models of Business in Society2014-04-07EnglishCoursera
Technology and the Future: Managing Change and
Competitive Strategy2014-04-11EnglishCoursera
On Strategy : What Managers Can Learn from Great Philosophers2014-04-14EnglishCoursera
Decision Skills: Power Tools to Build Your Life2014-04-14EnglishNovoED
Innovation and enterprise2014-04-14EnglishFutureLearn
Internationales Agrarmanagement2014-04-15Germaniversity
Международный аграрный менеджмент2014-04-15Russianiversity
Better Leader, Richer Life2014-04-20EnglishCoursera
Healthcare Innovation and Entrepreneurship2014-04-21EnglishCoursera
An Introduction to Marketing2014-04-21EnglishCoursera
Own Your Story: Advancing Women's
Beyond Silicon Valley: Growing Entrepreneurship in Transitioning Economies2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
001x: The Chemistry of Life2014-04-10EnglishEdX
Kitchen chemistry: Chemistry without a laboratory2014-04-14EnglishFutureLearn
The Fascination of Crystals and Symmetry2014-04-22Englishiversity
College Preparation
Discover Your
Computer Science
Cryptography I2014-04-01EnglishCoursera
Programming for Everybody2014-04-10EnglishCoursera
Machine Learning 2—Unsupervised Learning2014-04-14EnglishUdacity
Algorithmen und Datenstrukturen2014-04-14Germaniversity
CS169.1x: Engineering Software as a Service2014-04-18EnglishEdX
Functional Programming Principles in Scala2014-04-25EnglishCoursera
Malicious Software and its Underground Economy: Two Sides to Every Story2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
Документы и презентации в LaTeX (Introduction to LaTeX)2014-04-28RussianCoursera
Pensamiento algorítmico2014-04-28SpanishCoursera
Algorithms: Design and Analysis, Part 12014-04-29EnglishCoursera
Education and Teaching
The Dynamic Earth: A Course for Educators2014-04-14EnglishCoursera
Performance Assessment in the Virtual Classroom2014-04-14EnglishCoursera
BlendKit2014 - Becoming a Blended Learning
GP202: Reservoir Geomechanics 2014-04-01EnglishStanfordOnline
Everything is the Same: Modeling Engineered Systems2014-04-06EnglishCoursera
HYPERS301x: Hypersonics – from Shock Waves to Scramjets2014-04-07EnglishEdX
Vehicle Dynamics I: Accelerating and Braking2014-04-15Englishiversity
Modelling and Simulation using MATLAB®2014-04-22Englishiversity
NGI101x: Next Generation Infrastructures - Part 12014-04-23EnglishEdX
Comprendre les Microcontrôleurs2014-04-28FrenchCoursera
Introduction to Systems Engineering2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
Finance and Economics
Основы микроэкономики (Microeconomics Principles)2014-04-04RussianCoursera
История экономической мысли (History of Economic Thought)2014-04-04RussianCoursera
Теория отраслевых рынков (Industrial Organization)2014-04-07RussianCoursera
TW3421x: An Introduction to Credit Risk Management2014-04-15EnglishEdX
Public Economics2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
ANU-INDIA1x: Engaging India2014-04-29EnglishEdX
Health and Medicine
The New Nordic Diet - from Gastronomy to Health2014-04-07EnglishCoursera
Introduction to Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage2014-04-07EnglishCoursera
BIOIMG101x: Introduction to Biomedical Imaging2014-04-07EnglishEdX
Medicines adherence: Supporting patients with their treatment2014-04-07EnglishFutureLearn
An Introduction to Population Health2014-04-14EnglishCoursera
Genomic and Precision Medicine2014-04-14EnglishCoursera
PHLX101-01: Introduction to Bioethics2014-04-15EnglishEdX
Community Change in Public Health2014-04-21EnglishCoursera
Good brain, bad brain: drug origins2014-04-28EnglishFutureLearn
Introduction to the Profession of
PH210x: United States Health Policy2014-04-07EnglishEdX
Humanities and Social Studies
唐诗宋词人文解读 Appreciation of Tang and Song Poetry2014-04-08ChineseCoursera
媒介批评:理论与方法 Media Criticism: Theory and Method2014-04-08ChineseCoursera
ER22.1x: Justice2014-04-08EnglishEdX
Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy2014-04-14EnglishCoursera
Community Journalism2014-04-14EnglishFutureLearn
Technology and Ethics2014-04-21EnglishCoursera
The European Union in Global Governance2014-04-21Englishiversity
Classics of Chinese Humanities: Guided Readings | 中國人文經典: 大師導讀2014-04-24ChineseCoursera
Ser más creativos2014-04-28SpanishCoursera
Understanding Russians: Contexts of Intercultural Communication2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
Identity, conflict and public space: contest and transformation2014-04-28EnglishFutureLearn
Start writing fiction2014-04-28EnglishFutureLearn
Maps and the Geospatial Revolution2014-04-30EnglishCoursera
ColWri2.3x: Principles of Written English, Part 32014-04-01EnglishEdX
English Composition I: Achieving Expertise2014-04-21EnglishCoursera
Fundamentos de la escritura en español2014-04-28SpanishCoursera
6.SFMx: Street-Fighting Math2014-04-08EnglishEdX
Logic: Language and Information 22014-04-22EnglishCoursera
Getting a grip on mathematical symbolism2014-04-28EnglishFutureLearn
Physics and Earth Studies
Mechanics: Motion, Forces, Energy and Gravity, from Particles to PlanetsApril 2014EnglishCoursera
Exploring Quantum Physics2014-04-07EnglishCoursera
Climate Change in Four Dimensions2014-04-08EnglishCoursera
Physics 1 for Physical Science Majors2014-04-14EnglishCoursera
Intro to Sustainable
Ay1001x: The Evolving Universe2014-04-22EnglishEdX
AstroTech: The Science and Technology behind Astronomical Discovery2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
Sports and Building Aerodynamics2014-04-28EnglishCoursera
TROPIC101x: Tropical Coastal Ecosystems2014-04-28EnglishEdX
Professional Development
SAP Business Suite powered by SAP HANA2014-04-09EnglishopenSAP
M101P: MongoDB for Developers2014-04-14English10gen
M202: MongoDB Advanced Deployment and Operations2014-04-29English10gen
Statistics and Data Analysis
The Data Scientist’s Toolbox2014-04-07EnglishCoursera
R Programming2014-04-07EnglishCoursera
Getting and Cleaning Data2014-04-07EnglishCoursera
PH525x: Data Analysis for Genomics2014-04-07EnglishEdX
Stat2.2x: Introduction to Statistics: Probability2014-04-14EnglishEdX
Core Concepts in Data Analysis2014-04-21EnglishCoursera
Mathematical Biostatistics Boot Camp 22014-04-28EnglishCoursera
More Data Mining with Weka 2014-04-28Englishwaikato